MMM raised the question as to whether or not belief is higher among the less educated than among the highly educated.

Here, from Wikipedia is a list of currently living scientists who are also Christian believers.

Wikipedia also has a list of deceased Christian scientists.

I welcome readers views and comments



This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

This is a list of Christians in science and technology. People in this list should have their Christianity as relevant to their notable activities or public life, and who have publicly identified themselves as Christians or as of a Christian denomination.



Denis Alexander (born 1945): Emeritus Director of the Faraday Institute at the University of Cambridge and author of Rebuilding the Matrix – Science and Faith in the 21st Century. He also supervised a research group in cancer and immunology at the Babraham Institute.[212]

Werner Arber (born 1929): Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, he shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. In 2011, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Arber as President of the Pontifical Academy—the first Protestant to hold that position.[213]

Robert T. Bakker (born 1945): paleontologist who was a leading figure in the “Dinosaur Renaissance” and known for the theory some dinosaurs were warm-blooded. He is also a Pentecostal preacher who advocates theistic evolution and has written on religion.[214][215]

Dan Blazer (born 1944): American psychiatrist and medical researcher who is Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Duke University School of Medicine. He is known for researching the epidemiology of depression, substance use disorders, and the occurrence of suicide among the elderly. He has also researched the differences in the rate of substance use disorders among races.[216]

William Cecil Campbell (born 1930): Irish-American biologist and parasitologist known for his work in discovering a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworms, for which he was jointly awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine[217]

Francis Collins (born 1950): director of the National Institutes of Health and former director of the US National Human Genome Research Institute. He has also written on religious matters in articles and the book The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief.[218][219]

Peter Dodson (born 1946): American paleontologist who has published many papers and written and collaborated on books about dinosaurs. An authority on Ceratopsians, he has also authored several papers and textbooks on hadrosaurs and sauropods, and is a co-editor of The Dinosauria. He is a professor of Vertebrate Paleontology and of Veterinary Anatomy at the University of Pennsylvania.

Lindon Eaves (born 1944): British behavioral geneticist who has published on topics as diverse as the heritability of religion and psychopathology. In 1996, he and Kenneth Kendler founded the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics at Virginia Commonwealth University, where he is currently professor emeritus and actively engaged in research and training.[220][221]

Darrel R. Falk (born 1946): American biologist and the former president of the BioLogos Foundation.[222]

Charles Foster (born 1962): science writer on natural history, evolutionary biology, and theology. A Fellow of Green Templeton College, Oxford, the Royal Geographical Society, and the Linnean Society of London,[223] Foster has advocated theistic evolution in his book, The Selfless Gene (2009).[224]

Tyler VanderWeele: American epidemiologist and biostatistician and Professor of Epidemiology in the Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He is also the co-director of Harvard University’s Initiative on Health, Religion and Spirituality, the director of their Human Flourishing Program, and a faculty affiliate of the Harvard Institute for Quantitative Social Science. His research has focused on the application of causal inference to epidemiology, as well as on the relationship between religion and health.[225][226]

John Gurdon (born 1933): British developmental biologist. In 2012, he and Shinya Yamanaka were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be converted to stem cells. In an interview with on the subject of working with the Vatican in dialogue, he says “I’m not a Roman Catholic. I’m a Christian, of the Church of England…I’ve never seen the Vatican before, so that’s a new experience, and I’m grateful for it.”[227]

Brian Heap (born 1935): biologist who was Master of St Edmund’s College, University of Cambridge and was a founding member of the International Society for Science and Religion.[228][229]

Malcolm Jeeves (born 1926): British neuropsychologist who is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of St. Andrews, and was formerly President of The Royal Society of Edinburgh. He established the Department of Psychology at University of St. Andrews.[230]

Harold G. Koenig (born 1951): professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Duke University and leading researcher on the effects of religion and spirituality on health. He is also a Senior Fellow in the Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development at Duke.[231][232][233]

Larry Kwak (born 1959): renowned American cancer researcher who works at City of Hope National Medical Center. He was formerly Chairman of the Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma and Co-Director of the Center for Cancer Immunology Research at MD Anderson Hospital.[234] He was included on Time’s list of 2010’s most influential people.

Noella Marcellino (born 1951): American Benedictine nun with a degree in microbiology. Her field of interests include fungi and the effects of decay and putrefaction.[235]

Paul R. McHugh (born 1931): American psychiatrist whose research has focused on the neuroscientific foundations of motivated behaviors, psychiatric genetics, epidemiology, and neuropsychiatry. He is Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and former psychiatrist-in-chief at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Kenneth R. Miller (born 1948): molecular biologist at Brown University who wrote Finding Darwin’s God ISBN 0-06-093049-7.[236]

William Newsome (born 1952): neuroscientist at Stanford University. A member of the National Academy of Sciences. Co-chair of the BRAIN Initiative, “a rapid planning effort for a ten-year assault on how the brain works.”[240] He has written about his faith: “When I discuss religion with my fellow scientists…I realize I am an oddity — a serious Christian and a respected scientist.”[241]

Martin Nowak (born 1965): evolutionary biologist and mathematician best known for evolutionary dynamics. He teaches at Harvard University and is also a member of the Board of Advisers of the Templeton Foundation.[242][243]

Bennet Omalu (born 1968): Nigerian-American physician, forensic pathologist, and neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in American football players. He is a professor in the UC Davis Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.[244]

Ghillean Prance (born 1937): botanist involved in the Eden Project. He is a former President of Christians in Science.[245]

Joan Roughgarden (born 1946): evolutionary biologist who has taught at Stanford University since 1972. She wrote the book Evolution and Christian Faith: Reflections of an Evolutionary Biologist.[246]

Mary Higby Schweitzer: paleontologist at North Carolina State University who believes in the synergy of the Christian faith and the truth of empirical science.[247][248]

Andrew Wyllie: Scottish pathologist who discovered the significance of natural cell death, later naming the process apoptosis. Prior to retirement, he was Head of the Department of Pathology at the University of Cambridge.[249]


Peter Agre (born January 30, 1949): American physician, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor, and molecular biologist at Johns Hopkins University who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (which he shared with Roderick MacKinnon) for his discovery of aquaporins. Agre is a Lutheran.[250]

Andrew B. Bocarsly (born 1954): American chemist known for his research in electrochemistry, photochemistry, solids state chemistry, and fuel cells. He is a professor of chemistry at Princeton University.[251]

Gerhard Ertl (born 1936): 2007 Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry. He has said in an interview that “I believe in God. (…) I am a Christian and I try to live as a Christian (…) I read the Bible very often and I try to understand it.”[252]

Brian Kobilka (born 1955): American Nobel Prize winner of Chemistry in 2012, and is professor in the departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Kobilka attends the Catholic Community at Stanford, California.[253] He received the Mendel Medal from Villanova University, which it says “honors outstanding pioneering scientists who have demonstrated, by their lives and their standing before the world as scientists, that there is no intrinsic conflict between science and religion.”[254]

Todd Martinez (born 1968): American theoretical chemist who is a professor of chemistry at Stanford University and a Professor of Photon Science at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. His research focuses primarily on developing first-principles approaches to chemical reaction dynamics, starting from the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics.[255]

Artem R. Oganov (born 1975): Russian theoretical crystallographer, mineralogist, chemist, physicist, and materials scientist. He is a parishioner of St. Louis Catholic Church in Moscow.[256]

Henry F. Schaefer, III (born 1944): American computational and theoretical chemist, and one of the most highly cited scientists in the world with a Thomson Reuters H-Index of 116. He is the Graham Perdue Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Center for Computational Chemistry at the University of Georgia.[257]

Troy Van Voorhis: American chemist who is currently the Haslam and Dewey Professor of Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[258]

John White (chemist): Australian chemist who is currently Professor of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Research School of Chemistry, at the Australian National University. He is a Past President, Royal Australian Chemical Institute and President of Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering.[259]


Stephen Barr (born 1953): physicist who worked at Brookhaven National Laboratory and contributed papers to Physical Review as well as Physics Today. He also is a Catholic who writes for First Things and wrote Modern Physics and Ancient Faith. He teaches at the University of Delaware.[260]

Jocelyn Bell Burnell (born 1943): astrophysicist from Northern Ireland who discovered the first radio pulsars in 1967. She is currently Visiting Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Oxford.

Arnold O. Benz (born 1945): Swiss astrophysicist, currently professor emeritus at ETH Zurich. He is known for his research in plasma astrophysics,[261] in particular heliophysics, and received honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Zurich and The University of the South for his contributions to the dialog with theology.[262][263]

Katherine Blundell: British astrophysicist who is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Oxford and a supernumerary research fellow at St John’s College, Oxford. Her research investigates the physics of active galaxies such as quasars and objects in the Milky Way such as microquasars.[264]

Stephen Blundell (born 1967): British physicist who is a Professor of Physics at the University of Oxford. He was the previously head of Condensed Matter Physics at Oxford. His research is concerned with using muon-spin rotation and magnetoresistance techniques to study a range of organic and inorganic materials.[265]

Andrew Briggs (born 1950): British quantum physicist who is Professor of Nanomaterials at the University of Oxford. He is best known for his early work in acoustic microscopy and his current work in materials for quantum technologies.[266][267]

Joan Centrella: American astrophysicist known for her research on general relativity, gravity waves, gravitational lenses, and binary black holes. She is the former deputy director of the Astrophysics Science Division at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and is Executive in Residence for Science and Technology Policy at West Virginia University.[268][269][270]

Raymond Chiao (born 1940): American physicist renowned for his experimental work in quantum optics. He is currently an emeritus faculty member at the University of California, Merced Physics Department, where he is conducting research on gravitational radiation.[271][272]

Gerald B. Cleaver: professor in the Department of Physics at Baylor University and head of the Early Universe Cosmology and Strings (EUCOS) division of Baylor’s Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics & Engineering Research (CASPER). His research specialty is string phenomenology and string model building. He is linked to BioLogos and among his lectures are “”Faith and the New Cosmology.”[273][274]

Guy Consolmagno (born 1952): American Jesuit astronomer who works at the Vatican Observatory.

Cees Dekker (born 1959): Dutch physicist and Distinguished University Professor at the Technical University of Delft. He is known for his research on carbon nanotubes, single-molecule biophysics, and nanobiology. Ten of his group publications have been cited more than 1000 times, 64 papers got cited more than 100 times, and in 2001, his group work was selected as “breakthrough of the year” by the journal Science.[275]

George Francis Rayner Ellis (born 1939): professor of Complex Systems in the Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. He co-authored The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time with University of Cambridge physicist Stephen Hawking, published in 1973, and is considered one of the world’s leading theorists in cosmology. He is an active Quaker and in 2004 he won the Templeton Prize.

Paul Ewart (born 1948): professor of Physics and head of the sub-department of Atomic and Laser Physics within the Department of Physics, University of Oxford, and fellow and tutor in physics at Worcester College, Oxford, where he is now an emeritus fellow.[276][277][278][279]

Gerald Gabrielse (born 1951): American physicist renowned for his work on anti-matter. He is the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics at Harvard University, incoming Board of Trustees Professor of Physics and Director of the Center for Fundamental Physics at Low Energy at Northwestern University.[280][281]

Pamela L. Gay (born 1973): American astronomer, educator and writer, best known for her work in astronomical podcasting. Doctor Gay received her PhD from the University of Texas, Austin, in 2002.[282] Her position as both a skeptic and Christian has been noted upon.[283]

Karl W. Giberson (born 1957): Canadian physicist and evangelical, formerly a physics professor at Eastern Nazarene College in Massachusetts, Giberson is a prolific author specializing in the creation-evolution debate and who formerly served as vice president of the BioLogos Foundation.[284] He has published several books on the relationship between science and religion, such as The Language of Science and Faith: Straight Answers to Genuine Questions and Saving Darwin: How to be a Christian and Believe in Evolution.

Owen Gingerich (born 1930): Mennonite astronomer who went to Goshen College and Harvard. He is Professor Emeritus of Astronomy and of the History of Science at Harvard University and Senior Astronomer Emeritus at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Mr. Gingerich has written about people of faith in science history.[285][286]

J. Richard Gott (born 1947): professor of astrophysical sciences at Princeton University. He is known for developing and advocating two cosmological theories with the flavor of science fiction: Time travel and the Doomsday argument. When asked of his religious views in relation to his science, Gott responded that “I’m a Presbyterian. I believe in God; I always thought that was the humble position to take. I like what Einstein said: “God is subtle but not malicious.” I think if you want to know how the universe started, that’s a legitimate question for physics. But if you want to know why it’s here, then you may have to know—to borrow Stephen Hawking’s phrase—the mind of God.”[287]

Monica Grady (born 1958): leading British space scientist, primarily known for her work on meteorites. She is currently Professor of Planetary and Space Science at the Open University.

Robert Griffiths (born 1937): noted American physicist at Carnegie Mellon University. He has written on matters of science and religion.[288]

Frank Haig (born 1928): American physics professor

Daniel E. Hastings: American physicist renowned for his contributions in spacecraft and space system-environment interactions, space system architecture, and leadership in aerospace research and education.[289] He is currently the Cecil and Ida Green Education Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[290]

Michał Heller (born 1936): Catholic priest, a member of the Pontifical Academy of Theology, a founding member of the International Society for Science and Religion. He also is a mathematical physicist who has written articles on relativistic physics and Noncommutative geometry. His cross-disciplinary book Creative Tension: Essays on Science and Religion came out in 2003. For this work he won a Templeton Prize.[note 6][291]

Antony Hewish (born 1924): British radio astronomer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974 (together with Martin Ryle) for his work on the development of radio aperture synthesis and its role in the discovery of pulsars. He was also awarded the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1969. Hewish is a Christian.[292] Hewish also wrote in his introduction to John Polkinghorne’s 2009 Questions of Truth, “The ghostly presence of virtual particles defies rational common sense and is non-intuitive for those unacquainted with physics. Religious belief in God, and Christian belief … may seem strange to common-sense thinking. But when the most elementary physical things behave in this way, we should be prepared to accept that the deepest aspects of our existence go beyond our common-sense understanding.”[293]

Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. (born 1941): American astrophysicist and Nobel Prize laureate in Physics for his discovery with Russell Alan Hulse of a “new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.” He was the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor in Physics at Princeton University.[294]

Colin Humphreys (born 1941): British physicist. He is the former Goldsmiths’ Professor of Materials Science and a current Director of Research at the University of Cambridge, Professor of Experimental Physics at the Royal Institution in London and a Fellow of Selwyn College, Cambridge. Humphreys also “studies the Bible when not pursuing his day-job as a materials scientist.”[295]

Ian Hutchinson (scientist): physicist and nuclear engineer. He is currently Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering at the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Christopher Isham (born 1944): theoretical physicist who developed HPO formalism. He teaches at Imperial College London. In addition to being a physicist, he is a philosopher and theologian.[296][297]

Stephen R. Kane (born 1973): Australian astrophysicist who specializes in exoplanetary science. He is a professor of Astronomy and Planetary Astrophysics at the University of California, Riverside and a leading expert on the topic of planetary habitability and the habitable zone of planetary systems.[298][299]

Ard Louis: Professor in Theoretical Physics at the University of Oxford. Prior to his post at Oxford he taught Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Cambridge where he was also director of studies in Natural Sciences at Hughes Hall. He has written for The BioLogos Forum.[300]

Jonathan Lunine (born 1959): American planetary scientist and physicist, and the David C. Duncan Professor in the Physical Sciences and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell University.[301]

Juan Maldacena (born 1968): Argentine theoretical physicist and string theorist, best known for the most reliable realization of the holographic principle – the AdS/CFT correspondence.[302] He is a professor at the Institute for Advanced


Robert J. Wicks (born 1946): clinical psychologist who has written on the intersections of spirituality and psychology. Wicks for more than 30 years has been teaching at universities and professional schools of psychology, medicine, nursing, theology, and social work, currently at Loyola University Maryland. In 1996, he was a recipient of The Holy Cross Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice, the highest medal that can be awarded to the laity by the Papacy for distinguished service to the Roman Catholic Church.

David A. Booth (born 1938): British applied psychologist whose research and teaching centre on the processes in the mind that situate actions and reactions by people, members of other species, and socially intelligent engineered systems. He is an Honorary Professor in the School of Psychology at the University of Birmingham.[356]

Robert A. Emmons (born 1958): American psychologist who is regarded as the world’s leading scientific expert on gratitude.[357] He is a Professor of Psychology at UC Davis and the Editor-In-Chief of The Journal of Positive Psychology.[358]

Paul Farmer (born 1959): American anthropologist, physician and proponent of liberation theology. He is co-founder of Partners In Health, the Kolokotrones University Professor at Harvard University and Chief of the Division of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.[359]

David Myers (academic) (born 1942): American psychologist and Professor of Psychology at Hope College. He is the author of several books, including popular textbooks entitled Psychology, Exploring Psychology, Social Psychology and general-audience books dealing with issues related to Christian faith as well as scientific psychology.[360]

Andrew Pinsent (born 1966): Catholic priest, is the Research Director of the Ian Ramsey Centre for Science and Religion at the University of Oxford.[361][362]

William B. Hurlbut: bioethicist and consulting professor in the Department of Neurobiology at the Stanford University Medical Center. He served for eight years on the President’s Council on Bioethics and is nationally known for his advocacy of Altered Nuclear Transfer (ANT). He is a Christian of no denomination and did three years of post-doctoral study in theology and medical ethics at Stanford.[363][364]

Alister McGrath (born 1953): prolific Anglican theologian who has written on the relationship between science and theology in A Scientific Theology. McGrath holds two doctorates from the University of Oxford, a DPhil in Molecular Biophysics and a Doctor of Divinity in Theology. He has responded to the new atheists in several books, i.e. The Dawkins Delusion?. He is the Andreas Idreos Professor of Science and Religion at Oxford.[365]

Denis Lamoureux (born 1954): evolutionary creationist. He holds a professorial chair of science and religion at St. Joseph’s College at the University of Alberta —the first of its kind in Canada. Co-wrote (with Phillip E. Johnson) Darwinism Defeated? The Johnson-Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins (1999). Wrote Evolutionary Creation: A Christian Approach to Evolution (2008).[366]

Michael Reiss (born 1960): British bioethicist, science educator, and an Anglican priest. He was Director of Education at the Royal Society from 2006 to 2008. Reiss has campaigned for the teaching of evolution,[367] and is Professor of Science Education at the Institute of Education, University of London, where he is Pro-Director of Research and Development.[368]

Hugh Ross (born 1945): Canadian Christian apologist and old Earth creationist who runs Reasons to Believe.

Bienvenido Nebres (born 1940): Filipino mathematician, president of Ateneo de Manila University, and an honoree of the National Scientist of the Philippines award

Justin L. Barrett (born 1971): American experimental psychologist and Director of the Thrive Center for Human Development and Professor of Psychology at Fuller Graduate School of Psychology after being a researcher at the University of Oxford, Barrett is a cognitive scientist specializing in the cognitive science of religion. He has published “Cognitive Science, Religion, and Theology” (Templeton Press, 2011). Barrett has been described by the New York Times as ‘an observant Christian who believes in “an all-knowing, all-powerful, perfectly good God who brought the universe into being,” as he wrote in an e-mail message. “I believe that the purpose for people is to love God and love each other.”‘[369]